Y Cần Thơ- Powered by TheKyOnline.vn
who-whom
8.2 C©u hái th«ng b¸o L lo¹i c©u hái m ì trong c©u tr¶ lêi ngo ì i yes hoÆc no ra cßn ph¶i thªm mét sè c¸c th«ng tin kh¸c. C¸c c©u hái n ì y dïng víi mét sè c¸c ®¹i tõ nghi vÊn. 8.2.1 who v ì what l ì m chñ ng÷. Who + verb + (complement) + (modifier) what Who opened the door? (someone opened the door) What happened last night? (something happened last night.) Chó ý: Kh«ng ®óng khi nãi : Who did open the door? What did happen last night? 8.2.2 Whom v ì what l ì t©n ng÷ cña c©u hái whom auxiliary + + subject + verb + ( modifier) what do, does, did Chó ý: MÆc dï trong v¨n nãi, nhiÒu ng -êi sö dông who thay cho whom trong lo¹i c©u hái n ì y nh -ng tuyÖt ®èi kh«ng ®-îc dïng nh -vËy trong v¨n viÕt (lçi c¬ b¶n) VÝ dô: Whom does Ahmad know from Venezuela? ( Ahmad know someone from Venezuela) What did George buy at the store? ( George bought something at the store) 8.2.3 C©u hái d ì nh cho c¸c bæ ng÷ (when, where, why, how) when where why how Auxiliary + be + subject + verb + (complement) + (modifier) do, does, did When did John move to Jacksonville? Where does Mohamad live ? Why did George leave so early? How did Maria get to school today? Where has Henry gone? When will Bertha go back to Mexico?.8.3 C©u hái gi¸n tiÕp (embedded questions) L ì lo¹i c©u hái cã c¸c ®Æc ®iÓm sau: - C©u cã 2 th ì nh phÇn nèi víi nhau b»ng 1 ®¹i tõ nghi vÊn. - ®éng tõ ë mÖnh ®Ò 2 ph¶i ®øng xu«i sau chñ ng÷ kh«ng ®-îc cÊu t¹o c©u hái ë th ì nh phÇn thø 2. - ®¹i tõ nghi vÊn kh«ng chØ bao gåm 1 tõ m ì nhiÒu khi cã thÓ l ì 2 hoÆc 3 tõ ch¼ng h¹n: whose + noun, how many, how much, how long, how often, what time, v ì what kind. Subject + verb ( phrase) + question word + subject + verb VÝ dô: C©u hái : Where will the meeting take place? C©u hái gi¸n tiÕp: We haven’t ascertained where the meeting will take place. Q word subject verb phrase C©u hái: Why did the plane land at the wrong airport? C©u hái gi¸n tiÕp : The authorities cannot figure out why the plane landed at the wrong airport. Q word subject phrase auxiliary + subject + verb + question word + subject + verb Do you know where he went? Could you tell me what time it is? Mét sè thÝ dô: The professor didn’t know how many students would be in her afternoon class. I have no idea how long the interview will take. Do they know how often the bus runs at night? Can you tell me how far the museum is from the college? I’ll tell you what kind of ice cream tastes best. The teacher asked us whose book was on his desk. 8.4 C©u hái cã ®u«i Khi sö dông lo¹i c©u hái n ì y nªn nhí r»ng nã kh«ng nh»m môc ®Ých ®ª hái m ì nh»m ®Ó kh¼ng ®Þnh l¹i ý kiÕn cña b¶n th©n m×nh ®• biÕt. - C©u chia l ì m 2 th ì nh phÇn t¸ch biÖt nhau bëi dÊu phÈy. - NÕu ®éng tõ ë phÇn chÝnh ë thÓ kh¼ng ®Þnh th× ë phÇn ®u«i l ì phñ ®Þnh v ì ng -îc l¹i. - §éng tõ to be ®-îc dïng trùc tiÕp, c¸c ®éng tõ th -êng dïng trî ®éng tõ to do, c¸c ®éng tõ ë thêi kÐp: future, perfect, progressive dïng víi chÝnh trî ®éng tõ cña thêi ®ã. - C¸c th ì nh ng÷ there is, there are v ì it is dïng l¹i ë phÇn ®u«i. - §éng tõ to have trong tiÕng Anh cña ng -êi Mü l ì ®éng tõ th -êng do ®ã nã sÏ dïng víi trî ®éng tõ to do. VÝ dô: There are only twenty-eight days in February, aren’t there? It’s raining now, isn’t it? It isn’t raining now, is it?.The boys don’t have class tomorrow, do they? You and I talked with the professor yesterday, didn’t we? You won’t be leaving for another hour, will you? Jill and Joe have been to Mexico, haven’t they? You have two children, don’t you? (Trong tiÕng Anh, th× sÏ dïng haven’t you?) L -u ý: Trong c¸c b ì i thi TOEFL nÕu ®éng tõ chÝnh l ì have th× ®»ng sau ph¶i dïng trî ®éng tõ do. VÝ dô: She has an exam tomorrow, doesn’t she? 9. Lèi nãi phô ho¹ kh¼ng ®Þnh v ì phñ ®Þnh. 9.1 Lèi nãi phô ho¹ kh¼ng ®Þnh. - Dïng ®Ó phô ho¹ l¹i ý kh¼ng ®Þnh cña mét ng -êi kh¸c t -¬ng ®-¬ng víi c©u tiÕng viÖt “còng thÕ ” v ì ng -êi ta sÏ dïng so v ì too trong cÊu tróc n ì y. - §éng tõ to be ®-îc phÐp dïng trùc tiÕp, c¸c ®éng tõ th -êng dïng víi trî ®éng tõ to do, c¸c ®éng tõ ë thêi kÐp (future, perfect, progressive) dïng víi chÝnh ®éng tõ cña nã. - Khi be ®-îc sö dông trong mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh th× thêi cña ®éng tõ be sö dông trong c©u phô ho¹ còng ph¶i cïng thêi víi be ë mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh. Subject + verb(be) + too Affirmative statement (be) + and + So + verb(be) + subject VÝ dô: I am happy, and you are too. I am happy, and so are you. - Khi mét ®éng tõ ë thÓ kÐp (auxilary + verb), vÝ dô, will go, should do, has done, have written, must examine, vv... xuÊt hiÖn trong mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh th× trî ®éng tõ cña mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh ®-îc sö dông ë d¹ng kh¼ng ®Þnh, v ì chñ ng÷ v ì ®éng tõ ph¶i ho ì hîp. Subject + auxiliary only + too Affirmative statement + and + (®éng tõ ë thÓ kÐp) So + auxiliary only + subject VÝ dô: They will work in the lab tomorrow, and you will too. They will work in the lab tomorrow, and so will you. Subject +do, does, or did + too. Affirmative statement + and + (®éng tõ ®¬n trõ be) So + do, does, or did + subject.VÝ dô: Jane goes to that school, and my sister does too. Jane goes to that school, and so does my sister. John went to the mountains on his vacation, and we did too. John went to the mountains on his vacation, and so did we. I will be in New Mexico in August, and they will too. I will be in New Mexico in August, and so will they. He has seen her plays, and the girls have too. He has seen her plays, and so have the girls. We are going to the movies tonight, and Suzy is too. We are going to the movies tonight, and so is Suzy. She will wear a costume to the party, and we will too. She will wear a costume to the party, and so will we. 9.2 Lèi nãi phô ho¹ phñ ®Þnh - Dïng ®Ó phô ho¹ l¹i ý phñ ®Þnh cña ng -êi kh¸c, t -¬ng øng víi c©u tiÕng viÖt “ còng kh«ng”. - CÊu tróc dïng cho lo¹i c©u n ì y l ì either v ì neither. Nªn nhí r»ng: Not ... either / Neither ... positive verb. C¸c tr -êng hîp dïng gièng hÖt c«ng thøc kh¼ng ®Þnh. Subject + negative auxiliary or be + either . Negative statement + and + Neither + positive auxiliary or be + subject. VÝ dô: I didn’t see Mary this morning. John didn’t see Mary this morning. I didn’t see Mary this morning, and John didn’t either. I didn’t see Mary this morning, and neither did John. She won’t be going to the conference. Her colleagues won’t be going to the conference. She won’t be going to the conference, and her colleagues won’t either. She won’t be going to the conference, and neither will her colleagues. John hasn’t seen the new movie yet. I haven’t seen the new movie yet. John hasn’t seen the new movie yet, and I haven’t ether. John hasn’t seen the new movie yet, and neither have I. 10. C©u phñ ®Þnh §Ó th ì nh lËp c©u phñ ®Þnh ng -êi ta ®Æt not v ì o sau ®éng tõ to be, trî ®éng tõ to do cña ®éng tõ th -êng, v ì c¸c trî ®éng tõ cña ®éng tõ ë thêi kÐp. - §Æt any ®»ng tr -íc danh tõ ®Ó nhÊn m¹nh cho phñ ®Þnh..- Trong mét sè tr -êng hîp ®Ó nhÊn m¹nh cho danh tõ ®»ng sau bÞ phñ ®Þnh, ng -êi ta ®Ó ®éng tõ ë nguyªn thÓ v ì ®Æt no tr -íc danh tõ. ( no = not at all). Nagative + nagative = Positive VÝ dô: It’s really unbelievable that he has no money. Nagative + comparative = Superlative VÝ dô: Professor Baker couldn’t be more helpful = Pr. Baker was the most helpful. We couldn’t have gone to the beach on a better day. Tøc l ì : Today is the best day to go to the beach. Nagative ..., much less + noun. (kh«ng m ì l¹i c ì ng kh«ng) VÝ dô: He didn’t like to read novels, much less text books. It’s really unbelievable how he could have survived, after such a free fall, much less live to tell about it on TV. Mét sè phã tõ trong tiÕng Anh mang nghÜa phñ ®Þnh, khi ®• dïng nã trong c©u tuyÖt ®èi kh«ng ®-îc dïng phñ ®Þnh cña ®éng tõ n÷a. VÝ dô: Hardly Scarcely HÇu nh -kh«ng ( Almost no) Barely Hardly ever Rarely HÇu nh -kh«ng bao giê ( almost never). Seldom C«ng thøc dïng víi c¸c phã tõ trªn. Subject + nagative + adverb + positive verb.L -u ý: Barely v ì scarcely ®«i khi mang nghÜa võa ®ñ, võa so¹n (just enough). Ph¶i c¨n cø theo ng÷ c¶nh cña c©u hoÆc c¸c c©u tr¶ lêi d -íi phÇn nghe ®Ó t×m ra nghÜa ®óng. VÝ dô: He scarcely has money for the tuition fee and not any coins left. (Nã võa ®ñ tiÒn ®Ó tr¶ häc phÝ v ì kh«ng cßn xu n ì o c¶.) 11. MÖnh lÖnh thøc Chia l ì m 2 lo¹i trùc tiÕp v ì gi¸n tiÕp. 11.1 MÖnh lÖnh thøc trùc tiÕp. MÖnh lÖnh thøc trùc tiÕp l ì c©u m ì mét ng -êi ra lÖnh cho mét ng -êi kh¸c l ì m viÖc g× ®ã. Nã cã thÓ cã please ®i tr -íc. Chñ ng÷ ®-îc hiÓu l ì you. Sö dông d¹ng ®¬n gi¶n cña ®éng tõ (Nguyªn thÓ bá to). VÝ dô: Close the door. Open the window. Leave the room. Pay your rent. Please turn off the light. Be quiet. D¹ng mÖnh lÖnh thøc phñ ®Þnh ®-îc th ì nh lËp nhê céng thªm don’t tr -íc ®éng tõ. Don’t close the door. Please don’t turn off the light. Don’t open the window, please. ( Please cã thÓ ®øng ®Çu hoÆc cuèi c©u mÖnh lÖnh thøc l ì m cho c©u trë nªn lÞch sù h¬n). 11.2 MÖnh lÖnh thøc gi¸n tiÕp. Th -êng dïng víi 4 ®éng tõ sau: to order to ask to tell to say smb to do something. not to do something VÝ dô: John told Mary to close the door. Jack asked Jill to turn off the light. The teacher told Christopher to open the window. Please tell Jaime to leave the room. John ordered Bill to close his book. The policeman ordered the suspect to be quiet. L -u ý: §u«i cña Let’s ...., shall we. VÝ dô: Let’s go out for lunch, shall we? Kh¸c víi let us trong c©u mÖnh lÖnh thøc..VÝ dô: Let’s go now (chóng ta ®i th«i) kh¸c víi Let us go, please. ( xin h•y ®Ó cho chóng t«i ®i) 12. §éng tõ khiÕm khuyÕt. Së dÜ gäi l ì nh -vËy v× ®éng tõ n ì y mang nh÷ng ®Æc tÝnh nh -sau: - Kh«ng cã tiÓu tõ to ®»ng tr -íc. - §éng tõ n ì o ®i sau nã còng ph¶i bá to. - Kh«ng bao giê 2 ®éng tõ khiÕm khuyÕt ®i cïng víi nhau, nÕu cã th× b¾t buéc ®éng tõ thø 2 ph¶i chuyÓn sang mét d¹ng kh¸c. VÝ dô: Will have to must Will be able to can Will be allowed to may §éng tõ khiÕm khuyÕt ®-îc sö dông víi c¸c chøc n¨ng sau: 12.1 DiÔn ®¹t thêi t -¬ng lai. 12.2 DiÔn ®¹t c©u ®iÒu kiÖn. 12.2.1 §iÒu kiÖn cã thÓ thùc hiÖn ®-îc ë thêi hiÖn t¹i. Will/shall If + Subject + simple present + subject + + [verb in simple form] can/ may VÝ dô: If I have the money, I will buy a new car. If you try more, you will improve your English. We will have plenty of time to finish the project before dinner if it is only ten o’clock now. If + subject + simple present tense + subject + ... + simple present tense MÉu c©u n ì y cßn ®-îc dïng ®Ó diÔn t¶ mét thãi quen. VÝ dô: If the doctor has morning office hours, he visits his patients in the hospital in the afternoon (kh«ng cã ®éng tõ khuyÕt thiÕu.) John usually walks to school if he has enough time..If + Subject + simple present tense ... + command form* ... * Nªn nhí r»ng mÖnh lÖnh thøc ë d¹ng ®¬n gi¶n cña ®éng tõ. ( simple form) MÉu c©u trªn cã nghÜa l ì nhê ai, ra lÖnh cho ai l ì m g×. VÝ dô: If you go to the Post Office, please mail this letter for me. Please call me if you hear from Jane. 12.2.2 §iÒu kiÖn kh«ng thÓ thùc hiÖn ®-îc ë thêi hiÖn t¹i. Would/should If + Subject + simple past + subject + + verb in simple form could/ might VÝ dô: If I had enough money now, I would buy this house ( but now I don’t have enough money.) If I had the time, I would go to the beach with you this weekend. (but I don’t have the time.) ( I’m not going to the beach with you.) He would tell you about it if he were here. ( he won’t tell you about it.) ( He is not here). If he didn’t speak so quickly, you could understand him. (He speaks very quickly.) (You can’t understand him.) L -u ý: §éng tõ to be sau if ë mÉu c©u n ì y ph¶i chia l ì m were ë tÊt c¶ c¸c ng«i. I... they were. VÝ dô: If I were you, I wouldn’t do such a thing. (but I’m not you.) 12.2.3 §iÒu kiÖn kh«ng thÓ thùc hiÖn ®-îc ë thêi qu¸ khø. Would/should If + Subject + past perfect + subject + + have + P2 could / might VÝ dô: If we hadn’t lost the way we could have been here in time. (but in fact we lost the way, so we were late.) If we had known that you were there, we would have written you a letter..(We didn’t know that you were there.) ( we didn’t write you a letter.) She would have sold the house if she had found the right buyer. (She didn’t sell the house.) (She didn’t find the right buyer.) If we hadn’t lost the way, we would have arrived sooner. (We lost our way.) (we didn’t arrive early.) C©u ®iÒu kiÖn kh«ng ph¶i lóc n ì o còng tu©n theo ®óng c«ng thøc trªn, trong mét sè tr -êng hîp 1 vÕ cña c©u ®iÒu kiÖn ë qu¸ khø cßn mét vÕ l¹i ë hiÖn t¹i do thêi gian cña tõng mÖnh ®Ò quy ®Þnh. VÝ dô: If she had caught the flight she would be here by now. L -u ý: Trong mét sè tr -êng hîp ë c©u ®iÒu kiÖn kh«ng thÓ thùc hiÖn ®-îc ë thêi qu¸ khø, ng -êi ta bá if ®i v ì ®¶o had lªn ®Çu c©u nh -ng ý nghÜa vÉn gi÷ nguyªn. Had + subject + [verb in past participle ]... VÝ dô: Had we known you were there, we would have written you a letter. Had she found the right buyer, she would have sold the house. Hadn’t we lost the way, we would have arrived sooner. 12.2.4 C¸c c¸ch dïng ®Æc biÖt cña Will, would v ì sould trong c¸c mÖnh ®Ò if • Th«ng th -êng nh÷ng ®éng tõ n ì y kh«ng ®-îc dïng ®»ng sau if nh -ng nÕu ®-îc dïng nã sÏ mang ý nghÜa sau: If you will /would. Th -êng ®-îc dïng trong c¸c yªu cÇu lÞch sù ( Would lÞch sù h¬n) VÝ dô: If you would wait a moment, I will see if Mr John is here. (NÕu c« vui lßng chê mét chót, t«i sÏ xem liÖu «ng John cã ë ®©y kh«ng.) I would be very grateful if you will/ would make an arrangement for me. If you could + verb in simple form. NÕu «ng vui lßng - Ng -ßi nãi cho r»ng ng -êi kia sÏ ®ång ý nh -mét lÏ tÊt nhiªn VÝ dô: If you could fill in this form. If you could open your books. If + subject + will / would..NÕu ... chÞu - DiÔn ®¹t ý tù nguyÖn VÝ dô: If he will (would) listen to me, I can help him. NÕu nã chÞu nghe theo lêi t«i th× t«i cã thÓ gióp nã. If + subject + will. DiÔn t¶ sù ngoan cè. VÝ dô: If you will learn English this way, a failure for TOFEL test is sure awaiting you. NÕu cËu m ì cø häc tiÕng Anh theo c¸ch n ì y th× tr -ît kú thi TOFEL ch¾c ch¾n ®ang chê ®ãn cËu. If + subject +should. DiÔn ®¹t mét h ì nh ®éng dï rÊt cã thÓ ®-îc song kh¶ n¨ng rÊt Ýt v ì khi nãi ng -êi nãi kh«ng tin l ì sù viÖc l¹i cã thÓ x¶y ra. VÝ dô: If you shouldn’t know how to use this TV set, please call me up this number. NÕu anh kh«ng biÕt c¸ch sö dông chiÕc tivi n ì y, h•y gäi ®iÖn cho t«i sè m¸y n ì y. (Nãi vËy nh -ng ng -êi nãi kh«ng cho r»ng l ì anh ta l¹i kh«ng biÕt sö dông chiÕc tivi ®ã.) If you should have any difficulties while doing these exercises, please feel free to ask me. (Ng -êi thÇy kh«ng cho r»ng cËu häc sinh l¹i kh«ng l ì m ®-îc nh÷ng b ì i tËp ®ã - v× chóng rÊt dÔ hoÆc cËu häc trß rÊt th«ng minh) - Trong mét sè tr -êng hîp ng -êi ta bá if ®i v ì ®¶o should lªn ®Çu c©u m ì ng÷ nghÜa kh«ng thay ®æi. VÝ dô: Should you have any difficulties while doing these exercises, please feel free to ask me. Should it be cloudy and gray, the groundhog will supposedly wander around for food - a sign that spring is near. NÕu trêi cã nhiÒu m©y v ì bÇu trêi x¸m xÞt th× ng -êi ta cho l ì con sãc ®Êt sÏ ®i lang thang kiÕm ¨n - ®ã l ì dÊu hiÖu cña mïa Xu©n ®ang tíi gÇn. Thùc ra, khi sö dông cÊu tróc n ì y th× t¸c gi¶ cho r»ng khi con sãc ®Êt chui ra th× rÊt hiÕm khi trêi l¹i cã nhiÒu m©y v ì bÇu trêi l¹i x¸m l¹i - cã thÓ l ì do kÕt qu¶ thèng kª. 13. C¸ch sö dông th ì nh ng÷ as if, as though. (Cã nghÜa l ì : d -êng nh -l ì , nh -thÓ l ì ) - MÖnh ®Ò ®»ng sau 2 th ì nh ng÷ n ì y th -êng hay ë d¹ng ®iÒu kiÖn kh«ng thÓ thùc hiÖn ®-îc v ì chia l ì m 2 thêi:.13.1 Thêi hiÖn t¹i NÕu ®éng tõ ë mÖnh ®Ò tr -íc chia ë simple present th× ®éng tõ ë mÖnh ®Ò sau ph¶i chia ë simple past, ®éng tõ to be sÏ ph¶i chia ë l ì were ë tÊt c¶ c¸c ng«i. as if Subject + verb (simple present) + + subject + verb (simple past) as though VÝ dô: The old lady dresses as if it were winter even in the summer. HiÖn t¹i qu¸ khø (It is not winter.) Angelique walks as though she studied modelling. HiÖn t¹i qu¸ khø (She didn’t study modelling) He acts as though he were rich. HiÖn t¹i qu¸ khø (He is not rich) 13.2 Thêi qu¸ khø. NÕu ®éng tõ ë mÖnh ®Ò tr -íc chia ë simple past th× ®éng tõ ë mÖnh ®Ò 2 ph¶i chia ë past perfect. Subject + verb (simple past) + + subject + verb (past perfect) as if as though VÝ dô: Betty talked about the contest as if she had won the grand prize. Past simple past perfect (She didn’t win the grand prize.) Jeff looked as if he had seen a ghost. Past simple past perfect (She didn’t see a ghost.) He looked as though he had run ten miles. Past simple past perfect (He didn’t run ten miles.) • C¶ 2 d¹ng chia ®ã sau as if ®Òu diÔn ®¹t ®iÒu kiÖn kh«ng thÓ thùc hiÖn ®-îc. L -u ý: Trong mét sè tr -êng hîp nÕu ®iÒu kiÖn l ì cã thËt th× 2 c«ng thøc trªn kh«ng ®-îc tu©n theo. §éng tõ l¹i trë vÒ d¹ng b×nh th -êng theo diÔn biÕn cña c©u. VÝ dô:.He looks as if he has finish the test. 14. C¸ch sö dông ®éng tõ To hope v ì to wish. Hai ®éng tõ n ì y tuy ®ång nghÜa nh -ng kh¸c nhau vÒ mÆt ng÷ ph¸p. + §»ng sau ®éng tõ to hope l ì mét c©u diÔn biÕn b×nh th -êng. VÝ dô: I hope that they will come. ( I don’t know if they are coming.) ( T«i hy väng l ì hä sÏ tíi.) We hope that they came yesterday. ( We don’t know if they came.) + Nh -ng ®éng tõ to wish l¹i ®ßi hái ®»ng sau nã ph¶i l ì mét ®iÒu kiÖn kh«ng thÓ thùc hiÖn ®-îc. §iÒu kiÖn n ì y chia l ì m 3 thêi. 14.1 Thêi t -¬ng lai. §éng tõ ë mÖnh ®Ò sau sÏ ph¶i l ì Would / could + verb hoÆc were + Ving. Could + verb Subject + wish + (that) + Subject* + would + verb + ... were + Ving Subject* : cã thÓ l ì cïng hoÆc kh¸c chñ ng÷ víi chñ ng÷ trong mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh. VÝ dô: We wish that you could come to the party tonight. (You can’t come.) I wish that you would stop saying that. (You probably won’t stop.) She wish that she were coming with us. ( She is not coming with us.) 14.2 Thêi hiÖn t¹i §éng tõ ë mÖnh ®Ò 2 sÏ chia ë simple past. §éng tõ to be ph¶i chia l ì m were ë tÊt c¶ c¸c ng«i. Subject + wish + (that) + Subject* + verb in simple past ... VÝ dô: I wish that I had enough time to finish my homework. ( I don’t have enough time.) We wish that he were old enough to come with us. ( He is not old enough.) They wish that they didn’t have to go to class today. ( They have to go to class.) 14.3 Thêi qu¸ khø. §éng tõ ë mÖnh ®Ò sau sÏ ph¶i chia ë Past perfect hoÆc Could have + P2 Past perfect Subject + wish + (that) + Subject + Could have + P2.VÝ dô: I wish that I had washed the clothes yesterday. ( I didn’t wash the clothes yesterday.) She wish that she could have been there. ( She couldn’t be there.) We wish that we had had more time last night. ( We didn’t have more time.) L -u ý: §éng tõ wish chØ cã thÓ ¶nh h -ëng ®Õn mÖnh ®Ò ®»ng sau nã b»ng c¸ch buéc mÖnh ®Ò ®ã ph¶i ë ®iÒu kiÖn kh«ng thÓ thùc hiÖn ®-îc. Nh -ng ®iÒu kiÖn ®ã ë thêi n ì o l¹i do thêi gian cña mÖnh ®Ò ®ã quyÕt ®Þnh kh«ng hÒ phô thuéc v ì o thêi cña ®éng tõ to wish. VÝ dô: He wished that he could come to the party next week. Qu¸ khø §iÒu kiÖn ë t -¬ng lai T -¬ng lai Phï hîp vÒ thêi The photographer wished that we stood closer together than we are standing now. Qu¸ khø ®iÒu kiÖn ë hiÖn t¹i hiÖn t¹i Phï hîp vÒ thêi - Ph¶i ph©n biÖt víi to wish ë d¹ng c©u n ì y víi nghÜa -íc g×, mong g× víi to wish trong mÉu c©u sau: To wish somebody something VÝ dô: I wish you a happy birthday. 15. C¸ch sö dông th ì nh ng÷ used to v ì get/be used to 15.1 used to. Used to + [Verb in simple form]... ( Th -êng hay, ®• tõng) ChØ mét thãi quen, h ì nh ®éng th -êng xuyªn x¶y ra lÆp ®i lÆp l¹i trong qu¸ khø. VÝ dô: When David was young, he used to swim once a day. ( Thãi quen trong qu¸ khø) ChuyÓn sang c©u nghi vÊn: Did + Subject + use to + Verb = Used + Subject + to + verb. (*).VÝ dô: When David was young, did he use to swim once a day? used he to swim once a day? C©u phñ ®Þnh: Subject + didn’t + use to + Verb = Subject + used not to + verb. VÝ dô: When David was young, he didn’t use to swim once a day. he used not to swim once a day. 15.2 get / be used to. BE / GET USED TO + VING ( trë nªn quen víi) (noun) L -u ý: Trong c«ng thøc (*) cã thÓ thay used to = Would nh -ng dÔ nhÇm lÉn. 16. C¸ch sö dông th ì nh ng÷ Would rather Would rather ... than = Prefer ... to (ThÝch ... h¬n l ì ; th ì ... h¬n l ì ) -§»ng sau would rather ph¶i l ì mét ®éng tõ nguyªn thÓ bá to (bare infinitive) nh -ng ®»ng sau pre-fer ph¶i l ì mét verb+ing. VÝ dô: John would rather drink Coca-Cola than orange juice. John prefer drinking Coca-Cola to drinking orange juice. L -u ý: -ViÖc sö dông th ì nh ng÷ n ì y cßn tuú thuéc v ì o sè chñ ng÷ v ì nghÜa cña c©u 16.1 Lo¹i c©u cã mét chñ ng÷. ë lo¹i c©u n ì y chØ dïng Would rather (kh«ng cã than) v ì chia l ì m 2 thêi : 1. Thêi hiÖn t¹i. §éng tõ sau Would rather l ì nguyªn thÓ bá to. NÕu muèn dïng phñ ®Þnh ®Æt not tr -íc ®éng tõ nguyªn thÓ bá to ( c«ng thøc 1).Subject + Would rather + (not) bare infinitive (1) VÝ dô: Jim would rather go to class tomorrow Trong c©u n ì y ng -êi nãi muèn nãi Jim thÝch ®Õn líp v ì o ng ì y mai (chø h«m nay Jim kh«ng muèn) 2. Thêi qu¸ khø. ë thêi qu¸ khø sau would rather l ì have + past participle (hay cßn gäi l ì ph©n tõ 2 - P2 ) - C«ng thøc 2. Subject + would rather + have + (P2 ) (2) VÝ dô: John would rather have gone to class yesterday than today ( John thÝch ®i häc v ì o ng ì y h«m qua h¬n ng ì y h«m nay). 16.2 Lo¹i c©u cã 2 chñ ng÷ ë lo¹i c©u n ì y th ì nh ng÷ ®-îc sö dông sÏ l ì Would rather that (-íc g×, mong g×) v ì chia l ì m nh÷ng mÉu c©u nh -sau: 1. C©u gi¶ ®Þnh L ì lo¹i c©u diÔn ®¹t ý ng -êi thø nhÊt muèn ng -êi thø 2 l ì m mét viÖc g× ®ã, nh -ng l ì m hay kh«ng cßn tuú thuéc v ì o v ì o phÝa ng -êi thø 2. Do vËy cÊu tróc ®éng tõ sau chñ ng÷ 2 ph¶i l ì nguyªn thÓ bá to - C«ng thøc 1. Subject1 + Would rather that + Subject2 + bare infinitive (1) VÝ dô: I would rather that Jones call me tomorrow ( T«i muèn Johnes gäi ®iÖn cho t«i v ì o ng ì y mai - Nh -ng Jones cã gäi ®iÖn cho ng -êi nãi hay kh«ng cßn tuú v ì o Jones). We would rather that he take this train. (§¸p chuyÕn t ì u ®ã hay kh«ng cßn tuú v ì o anh Êy - Hä chØ muèn vËy). 2. §iÒu kiÖn kh«ng thùc hiÖn ®-îc ë hiÖn t¹i (nghÜa cña c©u tr¸i víi thùc tÕ). §éng tõ sau chñ ng÷ 2 sÏ chia ë Simple past, ®éng tõ to be sÏ ph¶i ®-îc chia th ì nh Were ë tÊt c¶ c¸c ng«i - C«ng thøc 2 Subject1 + would rather that + Subject2 + Simple past... (2) VÝ dô: Henry would rather that his girlfriend worked in the same department as he does (In fact his girlfriend doesn’t work in the same department.).Jane would rather that it were winter now. (It is not winter now.) NhËn xÐt: - Trong c¸c c©u trªn nghÜa cña vÕ thø 2 lu«n tr¸i víi thùc tÕ ë thêi ®iÓm hiÖn t¹i. - NÕu muèn th ì nh lËp thÓ phñ ®Þnh dïng Did not + verb Were not + verb 3. §iÒu kiÖn kh«ng thÓ thùc hiÖn ®-îc trong qu¸ khø ( NghÜa cña c©u l ì tr¸i víi thùc tÕ.) Trong lo¹i c©u n ì y ®éng tõ ë mÖnh ®Ò thø 2 sÏ ph¶i ®-îc chia ë Past perfect - C«ng thøc 1. Subject1 + would rather that + Subject2 + Past perfect (1) VÝ dô: Jim would rather that Jill had gone to class yesterday. (nh -ng trong thùc tÕ th× Jill ®• kh«ng tíi líp ng ì y h«m qua v ì ng -êi nãi chØ lÊy l ì m tiÔc l ì Jill ®• kh«ng tíi líp v ì o ng ì y h«m qua.) NhËn xÐt: Trªn thùc tÕ nghÜa cña to wish v ì would rather that (víi nghÜa -íc, mong muèn) trong tr -êng hîp trªn l ì gièng nhau nh -ng Wish ®-îc sö dông trong tiÕng Anh b×nh d©n (h ì ng ng ì y). Cßn Would rather that mang kÞch tÝnh nhiÒu h¬n. 17. C¸ch sö dông Would Like Th ì nh ng÷ n ì y dïng ®Ó mêi mäc ng -êi kh¸c mét c¸ch lÞch sù hoÆc diÔn ®¹t mong muèn cña m×nh mét c¸ch nh• nhÆn sau ®ã ph¶i l ì ®éng tõ nguyªn thÓ cã to (infinitive). Subject + would like + [to + verb] ... VÝ dô: Would you like to dance with me? I would like to visit Hongkong. We would like to order now, please. The president would like to be re-elected. They would like to study at the university. Would you like to see a movie tonight? L -u ý : - NÕu h ì nh ®éng ®-îc x¸c ®Þnh cô thÓ vÒ mÆt thêi gian hoÆc thêi gian l ì hiÖn t¹i th× dïng ®éng tõ nguyªn thÓ sau like. - Nh -ng nÕu thêi gian l ì kh«ng x¸c ®Þnh th× ph¶i dïng Verb+ing. VÝ dô:.Would you like a lemonade now? (thêi gian l ì hiÖn t¹i now) She likes watching TV every night. (thêi gian l ì kh«ng x¸c ®Þnh - chØ së thÝch hobby) HoÆc I would like eating a steak and salad. 18. C¸ch sö dông c¸c ®éng tõ khiÕm khuyÕt ®Ó diÔn ®¹t c¸c tr¹ng th¸i ë hiÖn t¹i. 18.1 Could/may/might. Could/may/might + [Verb in simple form] Cã thÓ /cã lÏ. ChØ mét kh¶ n¨ng cã thÓ x¶y ra ë hiÖn t¹i song ng -êi nãi kh«ng ch¾c. C¶ 3 ®éng tõ cã gi¸ trÞ nh -nhau. VÝ dô: It might rain tomorrow It will possibly rain tomorrow It may rain tomorrow = OR It could rain tomorrow Maybe it will rain tomorrow Chó ý: Maybe l ì sù kÕt hîp cña may v ì be, nh -ng nã l ì mét tõ v ì kh«ng ph¶i l ì trî ®éng tõ. Nã ®ång nghÜa víi perhaps. Mét sè vÝ dô vÒ Could, may, v ì might: The president said that there might be a strike next month. I don’t know what I’m doing tomorrow. I may go to the beach or I may stay home. (L -u ý l ì ng -êi Anh th -êng nãi l ì stay at home nh -ng ng -êi Mü l¹i nãi l ì stay home.) It might be warmer tomorrow. I may not be able to go with you tonight. I don’t know where Jaime is. He could be at home. 18.2 Should Should + [Verb in simple form] NghÜa l ì : - Nªn ( diÔn ®¹t mét lêi khuyªn, ®Ò nghÞ hoÆc b¾t buéc nh -ng kh«ng m¹nh l¾m) - Cã khi - dïng ®Ó diÔn ®¹t mong muèn ®iÒu g× x¶y ra. VÝ dô: It should rain tomorrow ( I expect it to rain tomorrow) My check should arrive next week. ( I expect it to arrive next week). L -u ý: - Had better, ought to, be supposed to nãi chung l ì ®ång nghÜa víi should víi ®iÒu kiÖn l ì ®éng tõ to be ph¶i chia ë thêi hiÖn t¹i.
Đăng bởi: ycantho - Ngày đăng: 31/08/2014
 1  2 
Sản Ngoại - Thủ thuật - Mổ Bệnh học nội - Phác đồ Nhi Ngoại ngữ Đọc giúp bạn Vui để học Basic sciences Đề thi Ghi danh AVYKDiễn đàn Y Cần ThơQuyên Góp

Số lượt truy cập
29.887.070
104 người đang xem