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Homework: vai trò của phosphalugel trong bệnh lý viêm dạ dày. Phosphalugel có phải là yếu tố nguy cơ gây sỏi niệu không?

Homework của TRẦN THỊ TRÚC MINH, MSSV:1353010030



   ** Phosphalugel  is an antacid. Antacids are a type of medication that can be purchased at pharmacies to cure heartburn and gastritis. An antacid works by neutralizing the acid in your stomach and increasing pH levels.

Our stomach is normally at pH levels of around 2 to 3. When we eat food, our stomach produces acid to help digest the food. However when we eat to much, our stomach produces too much acid and pH levels may drop below 2. This is when we start to experience heartburn, and that’s precisely when the antacids become useful. It helps to bring pH levels back to around 3 to 4, and often offers quick relief.

Antacids will not be able to neutralize the acid in the stomach by itself and will need another ingredient to help increase pH levels. This ingredient can be sodium, magnesium, calcium or aluminum.

Some over-the-counter antacids contain a H2 blocker or Proton Pump Inhibitors. These medications help reduce the amount of acid produced by the stomach. While they may not give immediate relief, and may take more than 1 hour, the relief from the symptoms will last much longer.

Phosphalugel is used to treat symptoms of increased stomach acid, such as heartburn, upset stomach, sour stomach, or acid indigestion. It is important to remember that antacids are drugs, and they should be used only for occasional acid indigestion or heartburn relief. Antacids are fast-acting and should provide relief within minutes.

Phosphalugel may be used:

·     To reduce the symptoms of acid reflux which may cause heartburn or inflammation of the gullet.

·     To relieve some of the symptoms caused by ulcers in the stomach and part of the gut called the duodenum .

·     In other conditions where it is helpful to neutralize stomach acid. For example, for occasional bouts of indigestion (dyspepsia) .


- Acute stomach mucosa inflammation .
- Stimulus stomach
- Acid complaints like brash, sour belching, superacidity of the stomach 
- Stomach trouble after pharmaceutical intake, after diet mistakes or excessive demand of the stomach after nicotine, coffee, sweets or strongly spicy foods.

**Antacid-induced nephrolithiasis: Renal side effects have rarely included formation of renal calculi, most probably due to hypercalciuria, with the use of aluminum hydroxide.

( Arch Intern Med 138: 1007-1009, 1978):A 36-year-old woman suffered from bone pain, muscle weakness, and renal stones after prolonged ingestion of antacids for esophageal reflux. Investigation disclosed hypophosphatemia, hypercalciuria, and osteomalacia by bone biopsy. All symptoms and abnormal laboratory findings reversed with a regimen of oral phosphate supplementation and cessation of antacid intake.

Australian and New Zealand Journal of MedicineVolume 20 , Issue 6 , pages 803–805 , December 1990  :A 29-year-old insulin-dependent diabetic woman developed phosphate depletion, nephrolithiasis and bilateral ureteric obstruction due to antacid abuse. Unlike previous descriptions of chronic phosphate depletion, myalgia, weakness and bone pain were absent. Biochemical features included hypophosphataemia, hypercalciuria, hypophosphaturia, elevated plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and low plasma intact parathyroid hormone. These abnormalities were corrected when antacid ingestion was reduced and phosphate intake supplemented. We propose that phosphate depletion secondary to antacid abuse caused 1α-hydroxylase activation and elevation of the plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D level, leading to marked hypercalciuria. Once diagnosed, antacid abuse is a readily reversible cause of hypercalciuria and renal stones.  Moreover, antacid-induced phosphate depletion may present with nephrolithiasis in the absence of musculoskeletal symptoms. This report is intended to draw attention to this important cause of renal stone disease.

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